Introduction to Synthesis Techniques — Terms and Concepts

Waveforms

sine wave

rising sawtooth wave

falling sawtooth wave

pulse wave

square wave

triangle wave

random (sample and hold, noise)

Additive synthesis.

Oscillators

Voltage Controlled Oscillator - VCO

Overtones

Harmonics — integer multiples of fundamental

Envelopes.

Voltage Controlled Amplifier — VCA

ADSR — Attack (time) Decay (time) Sustain (level) Release (time)

Subtractive Synthesis

Filters

Voltage Controlled Filter — VCF

low pass

high pass

band pass

notch (band cut)

high/low shelf

parametric EQ

spectral envelopes

Other delay-based effects: chorus, flange, phasing, delay, echo.

Modulation

sub-audio rate - LFO

Unipolar, Bipolar

Carrier/Modulator

audio rate synthesis AM, FM, Ring Modulation, sidebands