BIOLOGY 1408 Online LABORATORY
REVIEW FOR PRACTICALS
and Final Reviews (look at calendar to determine which unit topics are included with
1. Review units in the lab manual and review lab safety.
all quizzes, reports, lab questions at the end of each unit, and objectives.
2. Lab Safety
Review lab manual information.
the lab safety rules.
3. Unit 1: Measurement
Identify glassware and instruments used (graduated cylinders, beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, pipettes, triple bean balance, electronic balance, thermometers)
Know the scientific notation of prefixes used in the metric system (Tera, Giga, Mega, Kilo, Hecto, Deka, deci, centi, milli, micro, nano, pico)
Be able to convert from one unit to another and express answers in scientific notation.
Determine the volume that glassware (graduated cylinders, beakers, Erlenmeyer flasks, and pipettes) holds and be able to convert to other metric units.
Know the formula for converting from °F to °C and vice-versa.
Know the association between mL, cc and grams of pure water. Be able to convert to other units.
Be able to express answers in scientific notation.
the base unit for length, mass and volume.
4. Unit 2: Scientific Method
Define: scientific method steps, experimental group, control group, variables (dependent, independent, controlled), hypothesis, theory, law, fact, null hypothesis (Ho), alternative hypothesis (Ha), fail to reject the null, reject the null.
Know the purpose and result of the seed (pinto bean) experiment.
Know the common and scientific names of the subject used.
List the dependent variable, independent variable, and
5. Unit 3: Spectrophometry
Define: electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength, visible spectrum, spectrophotometry, and spectrophotometer
Know the wavelength range of the electromagnetic spectrum and of visible light.
List the colors of visible light in order from 380nm to 750 nm and know the wavelengths of each color.
Know the relationship between wavelength and energy. As wavelength decrease, the energy ___.
Know how to use the spectrophotometer.
Know the parts of the spectrophotometer.
Be able to extrapolate information about unknown protein concentrations from a standard curve.
Understand the relationship between protein concentration and
absorbance. As protein concentration increases, what happens to the absorbance
6. Unit 4: Acids, Bases, and pH
Define: acid, base, pH, anthocyanins (pigment), buffer
Know the three different ways used for measuring pH.
Be able to determine pH of substances using all three methods.
Determine the pH of a sample (using a pH meter, pH paper and anthocyanins) with a high concentration of hydrogen ions (H+), a high concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-), a low concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) and a low concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-).
Know the color that a buffer appears at a low pH, high pH and neutral pH when anythocyanins are used.
Anthocyanins were extracted from ____.
Be able to read a graph and know which curve has the greatest buffering capacity and why.
Understand what would happen to an unbuffered solution (a solution that is not a good buffer) if acid were added or if a base were added.
Understand neutralization of acid with antacids. Be able to
determine which antacid neutralizes the most acid.
7. Unit 5: Macromolecules
Define: colorimetry, reduction, oxidation, Sudan IV, emulsion, emulsifier, hydrolysis, polar, nonpolar
Know the color of Sudan IV stain and whether it is water-soluble or lipid soluble.
List 4 classes of macromolecules and their corresponding monomers when appropriate.
List some examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Know which two monosaccharides make up sucrose, lactose, and maltose.
List substances that contain reducing sugars, names of reducing sugars, the reagent used, negative and positive color changes.
List substances that contain starch, the reagent used, negative and positive color changes.
List substances that contain protein, the reagent used, negative and positive color changes.
products result from the hydrolysis of sucrose and starch? Which hydrolyzes
8. Unit 6: Osmosis & Diffusion
Define: diffusion, concentration gradient, osmosis, hypotonic, hypertonic, isotonic, turgid, plasmolysis, hemolysis, crenation, selectively permeable, impermeable
List two factors that influence the rate of diffusion.
Be able to determine approximate molecular weights based on diffusion ring size on agar plates. Know under which conditions water enters the dialysis bag and leaves the dialysis bag.
Know which of the substances tested diffuse across the dialysis tubing and which do not.
Know the reagents used to test for the presence of starch, protein, sulfate ions, and chloride ions. Know the positive and negative color changes.
Recognize turgid and plasmolyzed plant cells. Recognize crenated and normal erythrocytes.
9. Unit 7: Microscope and the Cell
Be able to define and determine total magnification.
Know the magnification power of each objective and magnification of the ocular lens.
Define: cell, prokaryotic, eukaryotic, nucleus, organelle, plasma membrane, chloroplasts, cell wall, cytoplasm (contains cytosol), central vacuole, nucleolus
Describe the three basic shapes of bacteria and know their scientific descriptions.
List some examples of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Identify bacteria, human cheek cells, onion scale cells, Elodea leaf cells.
List three structures found in all cells.
List structure/organelles found only in plant cells and structures/organelle found only in animal cells.
Know the largest plant and animal cell organelles and their functions.
Know all the parts of the microscope..
What happens to the depth of focus as magnification increases? (increases, decreases or stays the same)
What happens to the field of view as magnification increases? (increases, decreases or stays the same)
If the letter “e” is right-side-up on the slide, what will the image look like?
10. Unit 8: Enzymes
Know the equation for the formation of benzoquinone.
Name the substrate, the enzyme and the product.
List four factors (tested in lab) that affect enzyme action.
What is the optimum pH and temperature for catechol oxidase activity?
Be able to draw graphs of the effect that temperature and pH have on the enzyme. Be able to determine the optimum temperature and pH.
What purpose does EDTA serve?
Catechol oxidase was extracted from ____ .
11. Unit 9: Cellular Respiration
Review terminology: aerobic respiration (cellular respiration - required oxygen), anaerobic respiration (fermentation- does not require oxygen)
Know the difference between a reaction and a metabolic pathway.
Know the balanced equation for cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation. Know the products and reactants for cellular respiration and alcoholic fermentation.
Provide an example of a eukaryotic cell that undergoes cellular respiration and one that undergoes alcoholic fermentation.
Cellular Respiration: be familiar with the carbon dioxide production of seeds and the oxygen consumption by rodents exercises. Know how to calculate metabolic rate when mL of consumed oxygen, mass of animal in grams, and time in hours is given.
Identify the structures of the mitochondria (cristae, outer membrane, inner membrane, matrix)
Understand the importance of adding potassium hydroxide (KOH) pellets to the metabolic chamber.
Fermentation: compare carbon dioxide production in the three different yeast/glucose solutions prepared at home.
12. Unit 10: Photosynthesis
Review terminology (spectroscope, absorbed & transmitted light, chlorophylls & carotenoids,
In absorption of light by chloroplast extract; Know the spectrum of white light and the effects of using colored filters. Know the wavelengths of all the colors in the visible light spectrum (380-750 nm). Relate the absorption spectrum and %transmittance. Relate the absorbed color of a pigment to it's displayed color.
In separation of photosynthetic pigments by paper chromatography; understand how a chromatogram is made, be able to identify all pigments (chlorophyll a and b, xanthophylls, and carotenes) on a chromatogram, know their characteristic movement. List the names of the primary (chlorophylls) and secondary (carotenoids) photosynthetic pigments.
Understand the relationship between light and photosynthetic products. Know the effect of light and no light on a leaf and recognize a positive test for starch on leaf (using iodine).
Know the structure of the chloroplast. Identify the parts (stroma, granum, grana, thylakoid disks). Know the location of the light reactions and Calvin cycle (dark reactions).
13. Unit 11: Cell Division
Review the terminology (mitosis & meiosis, homologous chromosome & sister chromatids, diploid & haploid, chromatin & chromosome, centromere & kinetochore, cell plate & cleavage furrow, single chromosome & replicated chromosome).
Identify the stages of the cell cycle for both animal cells and plant cells: interphase, mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase), cytokinesis.
Understand the division of somatic cells: one 2n cell forms two 2n cells in mitosis. Understand the formation of gametes: one 2n cell forms four 1n cells.
Describe the process of meiosis and all of the events that occur in each stage (including crossing-over at prophase I).
Compare mitosis with meiosis. Understand mitosis and meiosis using pop beads.
14. Unit 12: Genetic Concepts
Be able to complete monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.
Compare complete dominance, codominance, and incomplete dominance.
Compare sex-linked and autosomal inheritance.
the importance of Chi-square.
15. Unit 13: Biotechnology
Review terminology (DNA & RNA, electrophoresis, biotechnology, restriction enzymes or restriction endonucleases (REs) .
Isolation and identification of nucleic acids: recognize the appearance of spooled DNA. Know the solution that causes DNA to precipitate.
Know the structure and function of nucleic acids. Understand replication, transcription, and translation.
Identify DNA bands on a gel.
Understand how DNA moves through the gel (based on charge and number of nucleotides).
Read and compare columns of DNA cut with different
restriction enzymes. Be able to solve a paternity suit and a crime scene
investigation using gel electrophoresis results.
16. Unit 14: Prokaryotes
Review terminology (prokaryote & eukaryote, Gram positive & Gram negative, coccus, bacillus & spirillum).
Distinguish between Gram positive (purple) and Gram negative (red) bacteria. Know the structural difference between the two groups.
Recognize and draw the three basic shapes of bacteria.
Know the contribution of Hans Christian Gram. Know the purpose of performing a Gram stain on unknown bacteria. List the steps of Gram staining in order; know the name of the first stain, the name of the mordant, the name of the decolorizer, the name of the counterstain.
Label and define the structures found in bacterial cells.