Review for Test 1 Audio
REVIEW FOR TEST 1: CHEMISTRY
CHAPTER 1 -1406/1408
1. Define: biology, cytology, homeostasis, genetics, ecology and emergent properties
2. List and define properties (characteristics) of life.
3. Understand the differences between a hypothesis, a theory, and a law.
4. Know how to correctly write a scientific name.
note: Felis catus
is the scientific name of the domestic cat. When typing you must italicize
the genus and specific epithet (Felis catus). When writing you must underline the genus and
specific epithet (Felis catus).
Always capitalize the genus (not the specific epithet).
5. Describe and give examples of:
a. deductive reasoning
b. inductive reasoning
6. What is a species?
7. Describe the main points
8. Define the hierarchy (levels) of organization. Know the sequence in increasing complexity.
g. organ system
9. Know the 3 domains and list examples and characteristics of each.
-Know the 4 kingdoms and list examples and characteristics by examining:
· the organism (unicellular or multicellular)
· their mode of obtaining organic food molecules: (autotrophs or heterotrophs)
heterotrophic, their mode of nutrition (absorption or ingestion)
10. Know the taxonomic levels (from domain to specific epithet).
note: a cat's scientific name (species) is Felis
catus. Felis is the
genus and catus the specific epithet.
11. Differentiate between
prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
12. Know the scientific
method and list steps in order (observe, test, hypothesis, results, predict,
13. Understand connections
between form and function.
CHAPTER 2 -1406 CHAPTER 2 (PART 1) – 1408
ELEMENTS, ATOMS AND MOLECULES
1. Define: matter, ions (cations,
anions), isotopes, valence
electrons, dalton, element, compound, molarity,
2. Draw and label the parts
of the atom. Be familiar
with electron orbitals and electron shells.
3. Know what the subscripts
and superscripts represent around the symbol. Define and distinguish among
atomic number, mass number, atomic weight. Given the atomic number and mass
number of an atom, determine the number of neutrons.
Carbon's superscript of 13
= mass number (mass is 13 daltons; protons + neutrons
= 13). Carbon's subscript of 6 = atomic number and proton number (atomic number
is 6; one atom of carbon has 6 protons). The
atomic weigh is 12.011 (found on periodic tables - http://www.chemicool.com).
4. Understand the Octet Rule (not in textbook).
5. List the 4 most abundant elements (of the 25) in living things.
6. Define, give examples of, and recognize the following chemical bonds:
7. Distinguish among
a. nonpolar covalent bond
b. polar covalent bond
c. ionic bond
d. hydrogen bond (describe the formation of a hydrogen bond and explain how it differs from a covalent and ionic bond)
CHAPTER 3 – 1406 CHAPTER 2 (PART 2) – 1408
WATER, ACIDS, BASES
polar and nonpolar, solvent, solute, solution, aqueous solution, trace element, bufffer, emulsifier, electronegativity
compare hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic bonding
2. Understand that the pH is based on a log rhythmic scale with a base of 10. When given a dissociation reaction, know if the reactant is an acid, a base, or neither. Define, give examples of, and list corresponding pH values of:
3. Know the difference between
cohesive and adhesive properties of water.
4. Explain the
relationship between the polarity of water and its ability to form hydrogen
5. Explain the basis of the pH scale. Explain how acids and bases directly or indirectly affect the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
6. Explain how
CHAPTER 4 – 1406 CHAPTER 3 (PART 1) – 1408
organic and inorganic chemistry, isomers
2. Know the following functional groups and their properties:
3. Distinguish among three types of isomers
(structural, enantiomers, geometric).
CHAPTER 5 – 1406 CHAPTER 3 (PART 2) – 1408
1. Define: polymers, monomers, macromolecules, hydrocarbon, polyunsaturated fat, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, dipeptide, tripeptide, polypeptide, denaturation, polynucleotide
dehydration reaction (condensation synthesis) vs. hydrolysis,
polymerization vs. depolymerization
2. List the function and all elements always found in the following organic macromolecules:
d. nucleic acids
a. Know and list examples of the following carbohydrates:
1. monosaccharides (know empiricial formula)
2. disaccharides (how are they made)
3. polysaccharides (how are they made)
b. List examples of proteins
c. List examples of lipids
d. List examples of nucleic
4. Explain the importance
5. Which two monosaccharides make the following disaccharides?
6. Determine the number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the following monosaccharides
a. trioses - (monosaccharide with 3 carbons)
b. tetroses - (monosaccharide with 4carbons)
c. pentoses - (monosaccharide with 5 carbons)
d. hexoses - (monosaccharide with 6 carbons)
e. heptoses -
(monosaccharide with 7 carbons)
7. Distinguish between the following polysaccharides. Which 3 elements are found in all of these? Which of these contains N in its structure? Which of these consists of alternating -OH groups? Animals store excess glucose as ____. Plants store excess glucose as ___.
8. What is the
composition of a fat molecule?
9. Which organic group has
the most diverse function?
10. An amino acid gets its name from which two functional groups?
11. How many naturally
occurring amino acids exist?
12. Describe the four levels of protein structure.
13. The conformation
(shape) of a protein is determined by which level(s)?
14. List the monomers (building blocks) of:
c. nucleic acids
15. Why is lipid a
16. DNA nucleotide consists of ________________ + ______________ (sugar) + ____, ____, ____, or ____ (N-bases).
RNA nucleotide consists of ________________
+ ______________ (sugar) +
____, ____, ____, or ____ (N-bases).
17. List DNA purines and pyrimidines.
List RNA purines and pyrimidines.
18. Compare and contrast
DNA to RNA. Consider location, function, and structure.
19. What do the acronyms
DNA and RNA represent?
20. Where and in what kind of macromolecule do you find the following?
a. glycosidic linkage
b. ester linkage
c. peptide bond
d. phosphodiester bond