Review for Test 5 Audio
REVIEW FOR TEST 5: Molecular Biology
List the DNA purine and pyrimidine bases.
3. In which chemical direction does replication occur?
4. Where in the cell does replication occur?
5. DNA nucleotide: phosphate + sugar + N-base
Name the sugar used in DNA.
the four N-bases that are used in DNA.
6. Approximately, how much time is required for replication to occur in:
7. Typically, how many replication origins are formed in:
8. In replication, what do the following enzymes do?
b. single-strand binding proteins
c. DNA polymerases
9. What are Okazaki fragments?
What is the length (# of nucleotides) of these fragments?
What enzyme joins these fragments together?
10. Understand the replication process.
11. Describe work done by:
a. Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase on DNA viruses.
b. Frederick Griffith with Streptococcus pneumoniae.
c. James Watson and Francis Crick.
d. Chargaff (Chargaff's rule).
e. Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins
12. Replicate: 5’ ATG 3’
10 – 1408
List the RNA purine and pyrimidine bases.
3. In which chemical direction do the following occur?
4. Describe the major types of cellular RNA.
snRNA (in eukaryotes only)
5. List the start codon and the amino acid it codes for.
List the three stop (nonsense) codons.
6. Where in the cell do transcription and translation occur in
7. RNA nucleotide: phosphate + sugar + N-base
Name the sugar used in RNA.
List the four N-bases that are used in RNA.
Before translation occurs in eukaryotic cells, the pre-mRNA must be
processed to form the mRNA. Understand the process. What are introns
9. In the priming process:
a. what is a primer?
b. what function does
10. Why are RNA polymerases considered more versatile than DNA
11. Understand the three stages of translation:
12. What are the two subunits of a ribosome?
13. Explain the wobble concept.
Adenine can be modified into inosine (I) and carried by __RNA.
Inosine can bind to ____,
____, or ____.
14. Explain, :redundancy of the code."
15. Transcribe and translate: 5’ ATG 3’
16. Describe the work done by
Beadle and Tatum (one
gene - one enzyme" hypothesis. Llater restated to read 'one gene
one polypeptide' hypothesis)
17. compare: mutation, mutagens, mutagenesis
18. Describe the following ways in which eukaryotes can acquire new genotypes.
19. Describe the following ways in which prokaryotes can acquire new genotypes.
20. Describe the following types of mutations:
a. base substitution
1. nonsense mutation
2. missense mutation
3. neutral mutation
b. deletion and insertion
1. frameshift mutation
Chapter 18: The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria
1. NATURALLY PRODUCED GENETIC RECOMBINATIONS
a. Define: transposons, transformation, conjugation, transduction
b. Conjugation in bacteria is mediated through ____.
Does conjugation require cell-to-cell direct contact?
What are sex pili used for?
What are F+ and F- cells?
c. What carries bacterial DNA from donor to recipient in transduction?
Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect only ____.
CHAPTER 19 -1406
1. Define: cancer, carcinogen, tumor, benign and malignant, metastases, transfection, proto-oncogene and oncogene, tumor-supressor genes
Approximately how many different types of human cancers are recognized?
cancers are caused mostly by ____ and some (15%) by ____.
4. List some cancer-affecting
voluntary and involuntary behaviors.
5. List some cancer-causing viruses.
6. Outline the two hypothesis on
7. Describe the origins of the following:
12 – 1408
Define: genetic engineering, restriction enzymes, recombinant DNA
technology, sticky ends and blunt ends, vector, genomic library
2. Describe the stages of genetic engineering.
a. cleave DNA
b. recombinant DNA
3. Be familiar with uses of recombinant DNA technology.
4. Describe the Human Genome Project (http://www.genome.gov/10001772
5. Provide examples of organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced. Is there a relationship between genome size (bp) and number of genes?