Chapter 2: "It's Greek to Me"

This crossword was created by Mindi Bailey (from Henry Sayres' "Discovering Humanities" with EclipseCrossword -

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5      6  7
  910        11        12     
  13          1415             
16          17     
    18      19       
    22            23        24


  1. pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who conceived of an atomic theory in which everything is made up of small, indivisible particles and empty space between them (2:65) (3:66)
  2. first literary work to tell detailed stories of the Greek pantheon of gods and goddesses (2:49) (3:50)
  3. Greek word that designates a Form or Guiding Force that guides the cosmic flux, a concept that later informs the Gospel of John in the Bible (where this word is often mistranslated as "Word") (2 & 3:66)
  4. portion of an ancient Greek city-state that served as a public meeting place, marketplace, and civic center (2 & 3:39)
  5. Plato's teacher who was ultimately arrested and put on trial for subversive behavior, corrupting young men, and introducing new gods (2 & 3:65)
  6. ancient Greek city-state that was home to the Sanctuary of Apollo and whose oracle was one of the best known from ancient times (2:50) (3:51)
  7. literally means "wise men"; this word also refers to the group of philosophers who were known for teaching students to argue both sides of an argument; asked not "What do we know?" but rather "How do we know what we think we know?" and "How can we trust what we think we know?"; this group concentrated not on the natural world but instead on the human mind (2 & 3:66)
  8. ancient citadel city that was known for its cyclopean masonry and massive Lion's Gate (2:45) (3:46)
  9. According to Greek mythology, he is the chief craftsperson who assisted the Minoan queen in her plan to attract King Minos's prize bull; he was also the chief architect of the labyrinth to cage the Minotaur; father of Icarus (2:44) (3:45)
  10. Macedonian king who took control of Greece after his father was assassinated in 336 BCE; he conquered Egypt, defeated Darius III, looted and burned Persepolis, the Persian capital, marched his soldiers 11,000 miles through Afghanistan, Pakistan, and into India without defeat, thereby creating the largest empire the world had ever seen; ushered in the Hellenistic period; tutored by Aristotle (2:70) (3:71)
  11. distinctive culture that flourished on Crete ca. 1900-1375 BCE; peaceful, unfortified, no weapons, prolific traders, probably matriarchal; ultimately deforested their environment with massive building projects; active trade with Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Scandanavia (2 & 3:42)
  12. author of the "Iliad" and "Odyssey" (2:46) (3:47)
  13. legendary Minoan queen who gave birth to the Minotaur (2 & 3:44)
  14. Greek god of immortality who promised followers life after death; god of wine and inspiration; associated with fertility and sexuality (2 & 3:50 & 67)
  15. Greek term that is often translated as "virtue," and which can be interpreted as "being the best you can be" or "reaching one's highest potential"; also means “diligence in the pursuit of excellence” (2 & 3:47)
  16. pre-Socratic philosopher responsible for one of the most famous of all Greek dictums: "Man is the measure of all things" (2 & 3:66)
  17. the Form that Socrates claims to be "the universal author of all things beautiful and right, parent of light and of the lord of light in this visible world, and the immediat source of reason and truth in the intellectual"; akin to God. (2 & 3:66-67)
  18. a story that describes the birth of one culture out of another (2:44) (3:45)
  19. Greek comic playwright who wrote "Lysistrata," the story of women from all over Greece who take over the treasury in Athens and go on a sex strike until their husbands agree to stop going to war (2:67) (3:68)


  1. According to Aristotle's "Poetics," this is what the audience undergoes when watching a tragedy; the cleansing, purification, or purgation of the soul (2:73) (3:75)
  2. Greek philosopher who wrote the "Allegory of the Cave" (book 7 of "The Republic") to explore the difficulties the psyche faces on its journey out of ignorance and into enlightened understanding of the higher Forms (2 & 3:66)
  3. named for mythic creatures half goat or horse and half man, this sort of satirical, sexually explicit comedy was based on irreverent farce (2:68) (3:67)
  4. philosopher from Ephesus who argued that, on one hand, everything is in a constant state of flux/change, which is the basis of reality whereas, on the other hand, there is an underlying Form or Guiding Force that guides the process
    (2 & 3:66)
  5. focus on the actions of human beings, especially political action; study of art and literature of Roman and Greek cultures in order to cultivate one's own unique talents and abilities (2 & 3:66)
  6. mathematically, the most beautiful of all proportions, a ratio of approximately 8:5 or more precisely, 1.618...:1 (answer is Golden Section. Sayre seems to have removed this info from the 3rd edition)
  7. son of King Aegeus of Athens who killed the Minotaur and who had promised his father that upon his successful return, he would raise the white sail. (Failing to do so,he would sail home under the black sails of the sacrificial ship, and when his father saw his black sailed ship approaching, in dispair, he threw himself into the sea that then took his name--the Aegean Sea.) (2:44) (3:45)
  8. animal that the inhabitants of Crete associate with male virility and strength; Minoan art depicts men and women in the act of leaping over this animal (2:42) (3:43)
  9. Greek word with many meanings that can be translated different ways, including "the good or flourishing life" or "activity of the soul in accordance with complete excellence" or simply "happiness" (2 & 3:40)
  10. central character of the Iliad; common epithet for him is "swift-footed"; considered the greatest warrior among the Greeks battling against the Trojans; known for his pride and his brawn rather than for his wit and brains; beloved friend of Patroclus; enemy of Hector (2:46) (3:47)
  11. Greek word that can be translated as "double ax" associated with the maze of the mythic Minotaur (2 & 3:44)
  12. Greek word that literally means "knowing the past" (2:40) (3:41)
  13. largest island of the Aegean Sea; home of the Minoans; maintained trade routes with Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt, Afghanistan, and Scandanavia from whom the island imported copper, ivory, amethyst, lapis lazuli, carnelian, gold, and amber (2 & 3:42)
  14. daughter of Minos who provided Theseus with a weapon and thread to help him kill the Minotaur and return safely from the labyrinth (2:44) (3:45)

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